Psyche has been located wholly intrapersonally (within the individual} or interpersonally (between persons, families, groups}, but never is it conceived also extra-personally as a component of the world, as a world soul or anima mundi in the classical sense.
The concept of the Self has come to imply a consistent cluster of characteristics which are often given fixed and universal attributes, such as the narcissistic self, topdog and underdog, false and true self, etc. This paper will expand the concept to include the versatility and unique aliveness of the individual's many selves and show how these selves help people make sense of their lives. Special attention will be given to broadening the concepts of introjections, transference, and gestalt formation, showing how these may be instrumental in harmonizing alienated selves.
Our present ideals of heroism are dominated by unrealistic and larger-than-life stereotypes. Not only has this narrow view eliminated much of the heroism of women, it has also provided men with simplistic solutions that are not only outmoded, but intimidating. Ultimately, it has deprived both sexes of a wide range of heroic examples and choices that could enrich their lives and the lives of those around them. This paper proposes a redefinition of heroism that expands traditional images and suggests that recognizing the unhackneyed heroism that occurs in ordinary circumstances may also enrich therapeutic possibilities.
Epicurus, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche are forefathers of contemporary psychotherapy. Freud was aware of these wellsprings of modern therapy, and Jung brings them specifically into his writing and his methods. We not only get hints from these forefathers, but we also find a lasting base in them, such as Bubar's "l-thou" construct or Kierkegaard's emphasis on the ultimate relationship of the self to life. These ideas are assumed in Freud, Jung, Adler, Rank, Fromm and other leading therapists in our day. It is these latter therapists who have given us the web of ideas which underlie contemporary psychotherapy.
Human experience and human action center in and derive from human subjectivity. Our preoccupation with objectivity results displaces identity from inner living to external. Life-changing psychotherapy requires centered awareness and self-direction. Three therapeutic elements are prime: Full presence, major commitment, and exploring client's self-and-world constructs.
The importance of therapeutic alliance is described. Therapeutic alliance, transference, and transference acting-out are defined and distinguished from each other and the therapeutic task of helping the patient to convert transference acting-out to therapeutic alliance and transference is outlined. The differences in the form and content of the intrapsychic structure are described to show why different therapeutic techniques are necessary to establish the therapeutic alliance: Confrontation with the borderline and mirroring interpretation of narcissistic vulnerability with the Narcissistic Personality Disorder. A brief case illustrates each.
The emphasis in Dynamic Psychotherapy over the past few decades has shifted from a focus on insight and the recovery of early memories to a recognition that the quality of the patient-therapist relationship is the quintessential factor upon which the success of therapy depends. This involves both the real relationship and transference-countertransference elements, all within a systems-theory orientation.
My own physical disabilities as well as my performance anxiety during my childhood and adolescence impelled me to read many ancient and modern philosophers who had worked on the philosophy of human happiness and unhappiness. Thinking about their views and adapting them to my own life, I made myself distinctly less disturbed as well as less disturbable.
The development of cognitive-behavior therapy parallels major developments in how to conceptualize the role of cognition in psychopathology and behavior change. Dr. Meichenbaum will trace his "personal journey" as a clinician and researcher, noting the altering views of cognition from a behavioral, information processing and constructive narrative perspective. He will examine the therapeutic and research implications of this shift.
The split in the modern personality is between the head and the body, between the rational mind and irrational gut feelings. It reflects the split in this culture between science and the natural forces in life and nature which science attempts to control. The modern individual lives largely in his head and is out of touch with his body because he had deadened it to suppress the fear, the pain and the despair which he experienced in childhood.