Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 – March 13, 1990) was an Austrian-born self-educated psychoanalyst who spent the bulk of his academic career from 1944 to 1973, as a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and director of the Orthogenic School for Disturbed Children.
He is perhaps best known for his essay The Uses of Enchantment (1976), which applied Freudian psychology to fairy tales and won the 1976 National Book Critics Circle Award for Criticism and the 1977 National Book Award in category Contemporary Thought.Bettelheim wrote a number of articles and books on psychology for more than 40 years and had an international reputation on such topics as Sigmund Freud and emotionally disturbed children.
Ronald David Laing, usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness – in particular, the experience of psychosis. R.D. received his M.D. from Glasgow University. Laing's name comes to mind when one thinks of practitioners who have been most effective at challenging prevailing medical thinking on schizophrenia. He has practices psychotherapy for more than 35 years and has authored 11 volumes.
Laing teaches and practices in London. Formerly he served as Chairman of The Philadelphia Association; was associated with the Tavistock Clinic; and was a Fellow of The Foundations Fund for Research in Psychiatry.
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